Figure 11

(click on image for figure alone)

See figure caption

Fig 11. Multiple reflections of an oblique electron beam in a mirror magnetic field. The cyclotron motion is the fastest periodic motion, followed by the slower bounce motion between the mirror points. Gradient and curvature drifts cause a third, slowest rotation azimuthally around the mirror axis. This is the classical charged particle motion in the ionosphere in Earth's magnetic dipole field. Collisions and other scattering processes diffuse the beam.

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